Which nuclear reactors are under IAEA safeguards?

Which nuclear reactors kept under IAEA Safeguards?

In 2017, the government sanctioned 10 new pressurised heavy water reactors and a decision on these being put under IAEA safeguards has to be taken, the official said. The 10 reactors are being installed in Kaiga, Karnataka; Chutka, Madhya Pradesh; Gorakhpur, Haryana; and Mahi Banswara, Rajasthan.

Why some nuclear reactors are under IAEA Safeguards?

The objective of IAEA Safeguards is to deter the spread of nuclear weapons by the early detection of the misuse of nuclear material or technology. This provides credible assurances that States are honouring their legal obligations that nuclear material is being used only for peaceful purposes.

Is thorium under IAEA Safeguards?

Radioactive sources that do not contain uranium, plutonium or thorium are not subject to safeguards and need not be reported to the IAEA under a safeguards agreement. Safeguards help to reconcile the dual nature of the atom.

What types of treaties require the application of IAEA Safeguards?

The IAEA concludes three types of safeguards agreements:

  • comprehensive safeguards agreements with non-nuclear-weapon State parties to the NPT;
  • voluntary offer safeguards agreements with the nuclear-weapon State parties to the NPT; and.
  • item-specific safeguards agreements with non-NPT States.
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Where is headquarter of IAEA?

Why are high safety standards needed in nuclear power stations?

– The nuclear industry has developed extremely high standards to ensure that radiation is contained and presents no risk to human health. … – This strong safety culture feeds into all aspects of power plant operation, resulting in nuclear power being statistically one of the safest industries to work in.

What is additional protocol?

The Additional Protocol is not a stand-alone agreement, but rather a protocol to a safeguards agreement that provides additional tools for verification. In particular, it significantly increases the IAEA’s ability to verify the peaceful use of all nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements.

What is a nuclear safeguard?

Nuclear safeguards are about protecting people and the environment from the illicit development of nuclear weapons. Safeguards activities aim to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons from civil nuclear activities including reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuel.

What is the main purpose of comprehensive safeguards agreements?

Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA)

A CSA also gives the IAEA the authority to independently verify that all nuclear material in the territory or jurisdictional control of a state is not diverted for nuclear weapons or explosives purposes and that nuclear facilities are not misused.

Has Iran signed the additional protocol?

Iran signed an additional protocol to its International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards agreement on Dec. 18, less than a month after the IAEA Board of Governors adopted a resolution condemning Tehran for pursuing clandestine nuclear activities.

Is IAEA legally binding?

IAEA Safeguards are embedded in legally binding agreements. In line with the IAEA’s Statute, States accept these Safeguards through the conclusion of such agreements with the Agency.

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Are IAEA inspections helpful in countering nuclear weapons?

Inspections by an impartial, credible third party have been a cornerstone of international nuclear arms control agreements for decades. Where the intent exists to develop a clandestine nuclear weapons program, inspections serve effectively as a means of both detection and deterrence.

What kinds of verification activities can IAEA carry out under the terms of the comprehensive safeguards agreement?

Verification measures include on-site inspections, visits, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Basically, two sets of measures are carried out in accordance with the type of safeguards agreements in force with a State. One set relates to verifying State reports of declared nuclear material and activities.

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