What is rated head in hydropower?

Head: Vertical change in elevation, expressed in feet or meters, between the head (reservoir) water level and the tailwater (downstream) level. Headwater: The water level above the powerhouse or at the upstream face of a dam.

What does head mean in hydroelectric power?

Head is the height difference between where the water enters into the hydro system and where it leaves it, measured in metres.

What is rated head of turbine?

Rated head (hr) – is the net head at which the full-gate output of the turbine produce the generator rated output in kilowatts. The turbine nameplate rating usually is given at this head.

How is head hydropower calculated?

If you don’t mind equations the easiest way to explain how much power you could generate is to look at the equation for calculating hydropower:

  1. P = m x g x Hnet x η
  2. Hnet = Hgross x 0.9 = 2.5 x 0.9 = 2.25 m.
  3. 3 m3/s = 3,000 litres per second.
  4. Power (W) = m x g x Hnet x η = 3,000 x 9.81 x 2.25 x 0.751 = 49,729 W = 49.7 kW.
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What are the different types of head used in hydropower?

Hydroelectric installations can be classified as low, medium or high head. The boundaries are fuzzy, but high head usually implies an effective head of appreciably more than 100 metres and low head less than perhaps 10 metres. Figure 14 shows the main features of the three types.

What is powerhouse in hydropower plant?

Power house: The structure that houses generators and turbines. Pumped storage: A type of hydropower that works like a battery, pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir for storage and later generation.

How do you find effective head?

In a hydro plant this will obviously depend on the volume flow rate of the moving water – the number of cubic metres (m3) per second passing through the plant, usually represented by the symbol Q (think ‘Quantity’); g = acceleration due to gravity and H is ‘effective head‘ of water.

Which turbine has highest speed?

Which turbine has highest speed? Explanation: Francis turbine has a specific speed of 60 to 300 rpm. Specific speed of Pelton turbine is lowest. Speed of Kaplan turbine is 2 to 3 times more than that of Francis turbine.

Which turbine is best?


  • Francis turbine. The most commonly used turbine in Hydro-Québec’s power system. …
  • Kaplan turbine. Austrian engineer Viktor Kaplan (1876-1934) invented this turbine. …
  • Propeller turbine. Since they can reach very high rotation speeds, propeller turbines are effective for low heads. …
  • Pelton turbine.

What are the different heads in turbines?

There are two main types of hydro turbines: impulse and reaction. The type of hydropower turbine selected for a project is based on the height of standing water—referred to as “head”—and the flow, or volume of water, at the site.

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How much electricity does hydropower produce?

Hydropower is the most efficient way to generate electricity. Modern hydro turbines can convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. The best fossil fuel plants are only about 50% efficient. In the U.S., hydropower is produced for an average of 0.85 cents per kilowatt-hour (kwh).

Where low head is available is used?

Low Head. Low head dams are usually classified as systems with head differences of around 10 meters or less. These low head hydro turbines are generally used in facilities such as run-of-the-river systems where there is a flowing river with little elevation change.

What type of hydro plant is it if the plant head is above 100m?

1. What type of Hydro plant is it if the Plant head is above 100m? Explanation: If the head of water available is above 100m, the plant is known as a high head plant.

What are 5 advantages of hydropower?

Advantages of hydroelectric energy

  • Renewable. Hydroelectric energy is classified as a renewable energy source because it is powered by water, and water is a naturally replenishing resource. …
  • Low emissions. …
  • Reliable. …
  • Safe. …
  • Environmental consequences. …
  • Expensive to build. …
  • Drought potential. …
  • Limited reservoirs.

What are four types of turbines?

While turbines can be classed as either impulse or reaction according to the way they function, there are four broad types of turbines categorized according to the fluid that supplies the driving force: steam, gas, water, or wind.

What are types of hydropower?

There are three types of hydropower facilities: impoundment, diversion, and pumped storage. Some hydropower plants use dams and some do not. The images below show both types of hydropower plants. Many dams were built for other purposes and hydropower was added later.

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Power generation